4| Common Words

Listed below are some common, basic words from the Japanese language. Included are the kana and (if any) kanji spellings, the English meaning and the Romaji pronunciation. These words a sight words only – this means they are here for you to memorise, recognise and understand, to help you get by in Japan. They can’t be used to form sentences all on their own.

Scroll to the bottom of the page for help with learning kanji!

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People

にんげん | 人間 | human being | ningen

ひと | 人 | person | hito

おとこ | 男  | man | otoko

おんな | 女 | woman | onna

かぞく |  家族  | family | kazoku

ぼく | 僕 | I (male) | boku

わたし| 私 | I (unisex – the most common form) | watashi

Body

あし | 足 | 脚 | foot, leg | ashi

かかと | 踵 | heel | kakato

すね | 脛  | shin | sune

ひざ | 膝 | knee | hiza

もも | 腿 | thigh | momo

あたま | 頭 | head | atama

かお | 顔 | face | kao

くち | 口 |  mouth | kuchi

くちびる | 唇 | lips | kuchibiru

は | 歯 |  tooth | ha

はな | 鼻 |  nose | hana

ひげ | 髭、鬚 髯 |  moustache, beard | hige

かみ | 髪 | hair | kami

みみ | 耳 |  ear | mimi

い | 胃 |  stomach | i

うで | 腕 |  arm | ude

ひじ | 肘 | elbow | hiji

かた | 肩 |  shoulder | kata

つめ | 爪 |  nail | tsume

て | 手 |  hand | te

てくび | 手首 | wrist | tekubi

てのひら | 掌、手の平 |  palm of hand | te-no-hira

ゆび  |  指  |  finger, toe | yubi

しり | 尻 | buttocks | shiri

おなか | お腹 | abdomen | o-naka

かんぞう | 肝臓 | liver | kanzō

きも | 肝 | liver | kimo

きんにく | 筋肉 | muscle | kin’niku

くび | 首 | neck | kubi

こころ | 心 | heart [as in feelings] | kokoro

こし | 腰 |  waist, hip | koshi

しんぞう | 心臓 |  heart | shinzō

せなか | 背中 |  back | senaka

ち | 血 |  blood | chi

にく | 肉 |  meat | niku

はだ | 肌、膚 |  skin | hada

ひふ | 皮膚 |  skin | hifu

ほね | 骨 |  bone | hone

むね | 胸 | chest | mune

かぜ | 風邪 | cold [illness] | kaze

げり | 下痢 | diarrhea | geri

びょうき  |  病気 |  illness | byōki

Family

おや | 親 |  parents | oya

こども | 子供 | children, child | kodomo

ちち | 父 | father | chichi

はは | 母 |  mother | haha

つま | 妻 |  wife | tsuma

おっと | 夫 | husband | otto

あに | 兄 |  older brother | ani, onī-san

あね | 姉 | older sister | ane, onē-san

おとうと | 弟 | younger brother | otōto

いもうと | 妹 | younger sister | imōto

きょうだい | 兄弟 | brothers, siblings | kyōdai

しまい | 姉妹 | sisters | shimai

そふ | 祖父 | grandfather | sofu

そぼ | 祖母 | grandmother | sobo

まご | 孫 | grandchild | mago

おじ  | 伯父、叔父 |  uncle | oji

おば | 伯母、叔母 | aunt | oba

いとこ | 従兄弟、従姉妹、従兄、従弟、従姉、従妹 | cousin | itoko

めい | 姪  | niece | mei

おい | 甥 | nephew | oi

Life

いきもの | 生物 | living creatures | ikimono

ばけもの | 化け物 | monster | bakemono

Animals

どうぶつ | 動物 | animal | dōbutsu

いぬ | 犬 | dog | inu

ねこ | 猫 |  cat | neko

うし | 牛 | cow | ushi

ぶた | 豚 |  pig | buta

うま | 馬 |  horse | uma

ひつじ | 羊  | sheep | hitsuji

さる | 猿 | monkey | saru

ねずみ | 鼠 | mouse, rat | nezumi

とら | 虎 | tiger | tora

オオカミ | 狼 | wolf | ōkami

うさぎ | 兎 | rabbit | usagi

りゅう、たつ | 竜 | dragon | ryūtatsu

しか | 鹿 |  deer | shika

かえる | 蛙 | frog | kaeru

がま | 蟇 | toad | gama

ライオン |  lion | raion

キリン | 麒麟 | giraffe | kirin

ぞう| 象 | elephant | zou

とり | 鳥 |  bird | tori

にわとり | 鶏 | chicken | niwatori

すずめ | 雀 |  sparrow | suzume

からす | 烏 | crow, raven | karasu

わし | 鷲 | eagle | washi

たか | 鷹 |  hawk, falcon | taka

さかな | 魚 |  fish | sakana

たい | 鯛  | red snapper | tai

えび | 海老  | shrimp, lobster | ebi

いわし | 鰯 |  sardine | iwashi

まぐろ | 鮪 |  tuna | maguro

かつお | 鰹 |  bonito | katsuo

さんま | 秋刀魚 | pike | sanma

あじ | 鰺 |  horse mackerel | aji

さば | 鯖 |  mackerel | saba

イカ | squid | ika

タコ | 蛸、章魚 |  octopus | tako

むし | 虫 | insect | mushi

ちょう | 蝶 |  butterfly | chō

ガ | 蛾 |  moth | ga

トンボ | 蜻蛉 |  dragonfly | tonbo

バッタ | 飛蝗 | grasshopper | batta

クモ | 蜘蛛 |  spider | kumo

ホタル | 蛍 | firefly | hotaru

ハエ | 蠅 |  housefly | hae

カ | 蚊 | mosquito, gnat | ka

ゴキブリ |  cockroach | gokiburi

カタツムリ | 蝸牛 | snail | katatsumuri

ナメクジ | 蛞蝓 | slug | namekuji

ミミズ | 蚯蚓 | earthworm | mimizu

かい | 貝 | shellfish | kai

かいがら | 貝殻 |  shell | kaigara

トカゲ | 蜥蜴 | lizard | tokage

へび | 蛇 |  snake | hebi

Plants

しょくぶつ | 植物 | plants | shokubutsu

くさ | 草 | grass | kusa

はな | 花 | flower | hana

み | 実  |  fruit | mi

き | 木 | tree | ki

は, はっぱ |  葉 |  leaf |hahappo

ね, ねっこ | 根 |  root |nenekko

くき |  茎 | stem | kuki

きのこ | 茸 | mushroom | kinoko

きく |  菊 | chrysanthemum | kiku

さくら | 桜 | cherry blossom | sakura

Crops

こめ | 米 |  uncooked rice  |  kome

いね  | 稲 | rice growing in a field | ine

むぎ | 麦 |  wheat, barley, oats | mugi

やさい | 野菜 |  vegetable | yasai

くだもの | 果物 | fruit for eating | kudamono

いも | 芋 |  yam, potato, taro | imo

まめ | 豆 | beans, peas | mame

だいこん | 大根 | Japanese white radish | daikon

にんじん | 人参 | carrot | ninjin

リンゴ | 林檎 |  apple | ringo

ミカン | 蜜柑 |  orange | mikan

バナナ |  banana | banana

ナシ | 梨 | pear | nashi

クリ | 栗 | chestnut tree | kuri

モモ | 桃 |  peach | momo

トマト |  tomato | tomato

スイカ | 西瓜 |  watermelon | suika

Food

ちょうしょく |  朝食 | breakfast | chōshoku

ひるごはん | 昼ご飯 | lunch | hirugohan

ばんごはん |  晩御飯 |  supper | bangohan

ごはん |  ご飯 | cooked rice or food | gohan

みそ | 味噌  | miso | miso

りょうり| 料理 |  cooking | ryōri

サラダ |  salad | sarada

デザート |  dessert | dezāto

パン | bread | pan

サンドイッチ |  sandwich | sandoitchi

おやつ  |  間食 |  snack | oyatsu

Drink

おちゃ |  お茶 |  green tea | ocha

コーヒー |  coffee | kōhī

ぎゅうにゅう |  牛乳 |  milk | gyūnyū

Seasoning

さとう | 砂糖 | sugar | satō

しお  |  塩 |  salt | shio

しょうゆ  |  醤油 |  soy sauce | shōyu

Time and space

じかん | 時間 | time | jikan

とき、じ | 時  |  ~hours | tokiji

こよみ、カレンダー | 暦 |  calendar | koyomikarendā

ふん | 分 |  minute | fun

びょう | 秒 |  second | byō

ひ、にち | 日 |  day | hinichi

つき、げつ | 月 | month | tsukigatsu

とし、ねん | 年 | year | toshinen

きのう、さくじつ | 昨日 | yesterday | kinōsakujitsu

きょう | 今日 | today | kyō

あした、あす、みょうにち | 明日 |  tomorrow | ashitaasumyōnichi

あさ | 朝 |  morning | asa

ひる | 昼 | afternoon | hiru

ゆうがた | 夕方 | evening | yūgata

ばん | 晩 |  evening | ban

よる | 夜 |  evening, night | yoru

ようび | 曜日 |  ~day | yōbi

げつようび | 月曜日 |  Monday | getsu-yōbi

かようび | 火曜日 | Tuesday | ka-yōbi

すいようび | 水曜日 | Wednesday | sui-yōbi

もくようび | 木曜日 | Thursday | moku-yōbi

きんようび | 金曜日 | Friday | kin-yōbi

どようび | 土曜日 | Saturday | do-yōbi

にちようび | 日曜日 | Sunday | nichi-yōbi

しゅう | 週 | week | shū

いっしゅうかん | 一週間 |  one week | isshūkan

たいよう | 太陽 | sun | taiyō

つき | 月 |  moon | tsuki

ほし | 星 | star | hoshi

てんき | 天気 | weather | tenki

はれ | 晴れ |  clear weather | hare

あめ | 雨 |  rain | ame

くもり | 曇り |  cloudy | kumori

ゆき | 雪 | snow | yuki

かぜ | 風 | wind | kaze

かみなり | 雷 | thunder, lightning | kaminari

たいふう | 台風 |  typhoon | taifū

あらし | 嵐 | storm | arashi

そら | 空 | sky | sora

Directions and positions

ひがし | 東 |  east | higashi

にし | 西 | west | nishi

みなみ | 南 |  south | minami

きた | 北 |  north | kita

ここ | here | koko

そこ| there | soko

あそこ|  over there | asoko

みぎ | 右 | right | migi

ひだり | 左 |  left  | hidari

うえ | 上 |  above | ue

した | 下 |  below | shita

まえ | 前 |  in front [of] | mae

うしろ | 後 |  behind | ushiro

むこう | 向こう | the other side, opposite side | mukō

ななめ | 斜め |  diagonal | naname

てまえ | 手前 | nearer, more in front | temae

おく| 奥 | far | oku

Materials

みず | 水 | water | mizu

ゆ | 湯 | hot water | yu

こおり | 氷 | ice | kōri

ゆげ | 湯気 |  steam | yuge

ひ | 火 | fire | hi

ガス | gas | gasu

くうき | 空気 |  air, atmosphere | kūki

つち  |  土 |  earth, ground | tsuchi

きんぞく | 金属 | metal, metallic | kinzoku

てつ | 鉄 | iron [Fe] | tetsu

どう | 銅 |  copper [Cu] |

きん | 金 |  gold [Au], money | kin

ぎん | 銀 | silver [Ag], wealth | gin

なまり | 鉛 |  lead [Pb] | namari

しお | 塩 | salt [NaCl] | shio

どろ | 泥 | mud, mire, clay, plaster | doro

けむり | 煙 |  smoke, tobacco, opium | kemuri

Weights and measures

メートル | meter | mētoru

リットル |  liter | rittoru

グラム |  gram | guramu

キロ |  kilo | kiro

ミリ |  milli- | miri

センチメートル, センチ | centimeter | senchi

インチ | inch | inchi

Society

しゃかい | 社会 |  society | shakai

けいざい | 経済 |  economy, economics | keizai

かいしゃ | 会社 | company | kaisha

かいぎ | 会議 | meeting | kaigi

がっこう | 学校 |  school | gakkō

やくしょ | 役所 | local government office | yakusho

みせ | 店 | store | mise

ホテル |  hotel | hoteru

こうじょう | 工場 |  factory | kōjō

かね | 金 |  money | kane, most commonly o-kane

さつ | 札 | bill [of money, e.g., a thousand-yen bill] | satsu

こぜに | 小銭 | small change | kozeni

つりせん、釣り銭 | おつり、お釣り |  change | tsurisen, o-tsuri

じどうはんばいき | 自動販売機 |  vending machine, slot machine | jidōhanbaiki

きっぷ | 切符 |  ticket (public transport, fine) | kippu

きって | 切手 | stamp | kitte

Manmade objects

Home

つくえ | 机 | desk | tsukue

いす | 椅子 | chair, position | isu

たたみ | 畳 | a tatami mat | tatami

と | 戸 | door, family | to

とびら | 扉 | door panel | tobira

ドア | door | doa

まど | 窓 | window | mado

ふとん | 布団 | futon | futon

げんかん | 玄関 | entrance | genkan

いえ | 家 | house, home | ie

エレベーター |  elevator | erebētā

エスカレーター | escalator | esukarētā

でんき | 電気 | electricity | denki

Tools

くぎ | 釘 | nail, spike | kugi

ひも | 紐 | string, cord | himo

なわ | 縄 | rope, string | nawa

ふくろ | 袋 | pocket, bag | fukuro

かばん | 鞄 |  leather bag | kaban

かさ | 傘 | umbrella, parasol | kasa

かぎ | 鍵 |  door bolt, key | kagi

ちょうこく | 彫刻 | sculpture, engraving | chōkoku

Stationery

ぶんぼうぐ | 文房具 | stationery | bunbōgu

インク |  ink | inku

ペン |  pen | pen

ボールペン | ball-point pen | bōrupen

まんねんひつ | 万年筆 | fountain pen | mannenhitsu

えんぴつ | 鉛筆 | pencil | enpitsu

ふで | 筆 | brush for writing or painting | fude

チョーク | chalk | chōku

けしゴム | 消しゴム | eraser | keshigomu

えんぴつけずり | 鉛筆削り | pencil sharpener | enpitsu-kezuri

じょうぎ | 定規 |  ruler | jōgi

ノート |  notebook | nōto

にっき | 日記 | diary | nikki

カバー |  book cover | kabā

ほん | 書籍 | book | hon

ふうとう | 封筒 | envelope | fūtō

はさみ | 鋏 |  scissors | hasami

ホッチキス | stapler | hotchikisu

Clothes

ふく | 服 | clothes | fuku

ようふく | 洋服 | western clothing | yōfuku

きもの | 着物 |  kimono | kimono

わふく | 和服 |  Japanese clothing | wafuku

そで | 袖 | sleeve | sode

えり | 襟 |  lapel, collar | eri

ボタン | button | botan

チャック、ファスナー、ジッパー | zipper, zipper fastener | chakku, fasunā, jippā

ベルト | belt | beruto

くつ | 靴 | shoe | kutsu

めがね | 眼鏡 |  glasses | megane

Transport

てつどう | 鉄道 |  railway | tetsudō

えき | 駅 |  station | eki

ひこうき | 飛行機 |  airplane | hikōki

くうこう | 空港 (ひこうじょう、飛行場) | airport | kūkōhikōjō

みち | 道 | street, way, road | michi

どうろ | 道路 | road | dōro

バスてい | バス停 |  bus-stop | basutei

とおり | 通り | avenue | tōri

でんしゃ | 電車 |  train | densha

しんかんせん | 新幹線 | bullet train | shinkansen

じどうしゃ | 自動車 |  car | jidōsha

Language

もじ | 文字 |  letter, character, script | moji

じ | 字 |  a letter, character | ji

かんじ | 漢字 |  Chinese character | kanji

ひらがな | 平仮名 |  hiragana syllabary characters | hiragana

カタカナ | 片仮名 |  katakana syllabary characters | katakana

すうじ | 数字 | numbers | sūji

アルファベット |  alphabet | arufabetto

ローマ字 |  Roman characters, Latin script | rōmaji

ほん | 本 |  root, origin, source | hon

かみ | 紙 | paper | kami

てがみ | 手紙 | letter | tegami

しんぶん | 新聞 | newspaper | shinbun

じしょ | 辞書 | dictionary | jisho

パソコン |  personal computer | pasokon

がいこくご | 外国語 | foreign language | gaikokugo

にほんご | 日本語  |  Japanese [language] | nihongo

えいご | 英語 |  English [language] | eigo

ちゅうごくご | 中国語 | Chinese [language] | chūgokugo

どいつご | ドイツ語 | German [language] | doitsugo

すぺいんご | スペイン語 | Spanish [language] | supeingo

ふらんすご | フランス語 |  French [language] | furansugo

ちょうせんご | 朝鮮語、かんこくご、韓国語 | Korean [language], South Korean [language] | chōsengokankokugo

Colors

いろ | 色 | color | iroshikisai

あか | 赤 | red | aka

きいろ | 黄色 | yellow | kiiro

みどり | 緑 |  green | midori

あお | 青 |  blue | ao

むらさき | 紫 |  purple | murasakimurasakiiro

しろ | 白 | white | shiro

くろ | 黒 |  black | kuro

ピンク |  pink | pinku

ちゃいろ | 茶色 | brown | chairo

はいいろ,  ねずみいろ| 灰色,  鼠色 | grey | haiironezumiiro

オレンジ | orange | orenjiiro

Others

え  | 絵 |  picture | e

おんがく | 音楽  | music | ongaku

りか | 理科 |  science | rika

さんすう | 算数 |  arithmetic | sansū

れきし | 歴史 |  history | rekishi

ちり | 地理 | geography | chiri

たいいく | 体育 | physical education | taiiku

スポーツ | sport | supōtsu

システム | system | shisutemu

じょうほう | 情報 | information, news | jyōhō

ひつよう | 必要 |  necessity | hitsuyō

べんきょう | 勉強 |  study | benkyō

いらい | 依頼 |  request | irai

Numbers

れい | 零 | ゼロ | zero | rei, zero

いち | 一  | one | ichi

に | 二 | two | ni

さん | 三 |  three | san

よん, し | 四 |  four | yonshi

ご | 五 | five | go

ろく | 六 |  six | roku

なな, しち | 七 | seven | nanashichi

はち | 八 | eight | hachi

きゅう, く | 九 |  nine | kyūku

じゅう | 十 |  ten |

ひゃく | 百 |  hundred | hyaku

せん | 千 |  thousand | sen

まん | 万 | ten thousand | man

おく| 億 |  one hundred million | oku

ひとつ | one, one thing | hitotsu

ふたつ |  two, two things | futatsu

みっつ |  three, three things | mittsu

よっつ |  four, four things | yottsu

いつつ | five, five things | itsutsu

むっつ | six, six things | muttsu

ななつ | seven, seven things | nanatsu

やっつ | eight, eight things | yattsu

ここのつ |  nine, nine things | kokonotsu

とお |  ten, ten things |

Abstract nouns

これ | this, it | kore

それ |  that | sore

あれ | that over there | are

どれ | which | dore

こちら、こっち |  this direction, thing, person, or place | kochirakocchi

そちら、そっち | that direction, thing, person, or place | sochirasocchi

あちら、あっち | that direction, thing, person, or place over there | achiraacchi

どちら、どっち | which direction, thing, person, or place | dochiradocchi

ひみつ | 秘密 |  secret | himitsu

じどう | 自動 |  automatic | jidō

ないよう | 内容 |  content | naiyō

はば | 幅 | hem, piece, strip | haba

せいしき | 正式 |  formality | seishiki

けっこん | 結婚 |  marriage | kekkon

げんざい | 現在 |  now | genzai

いま | 今 | now | ima

かこ | 過去 |  past | kako

みらい | 未来 | future | mirai

Adjectives

Forms

いい, よい | 良い | good | iiyoi

わるい | 悪い |  bad, inferior | warui

たかい | 高い |  expensive, high | takai

ひくい | 低い | low | hikui

やすい | 安い |  cheap | yasui

おおきい | 大きい |  big | ōkii

ちいさい | 小さい |  small | chiisai

ほそい | 細い |  thin | hosoi

ふとい | 太い |  thick | futoi

ふるい | 古い |  old  | furui

あたらしい | 新しい |  new | atarashii

わかい | 若い |  young | wakai

かるい | 軽い | light, easy | karui

おもい | 重い | heavy | omoi

やさしい | 易しい |  easy, simple | yasashii

むずかしい | 難しい |  difficult | muzukashii

やわらかい | 柔らかい |  soft | yawarakai

かたい | 硬い,  堅い |  hard | katai

あつい | 熱い,  暑い |  hot | atsui

つめたい | 冷たい | cold | tsumetai

さむい | 寒い | cold | samui

おいしい | 美味しい |  delicious | oishii

うまい | 美味い,  旨い |  delicious, appetizing | umai

まずい | 不味い |  tastes awful | mazui

あまい | 甘い |  sweet | amai

からい | 辛い |  hot [spicy] | karai

しょっぱい | 塩っぱい |  salty | shoppai

にがい | 苦い |  bitter | nigai

Feelings

うれしい | 嬉しい |  happy | ureshii

かなしい | 悲しい |  sad | kanashii

さびしい | 淋しい |  lonely | sabishii

こわい | 怖い,  恐い | scary | kowai

いたい | 痛い |  painful | itai

かゆい | 痒い |  itchy | kayui

くさい | 臭い |  stinky | kusai

つらい | 辛い |  painful, heart-breaking | tsurai

Verbs

する |  to do | suru

やる | to do | yaru

Existence

いる |  to exist [for animate objects] | iru

ある |  to exist [for inanimate objects] | aru

なる | to become | naru

おこる | 起こる, 興る |  to occur | okoru

あらわれる | 現れる |  to appear | arawareru

いきる| 生きる |  to live | ikiru

うむ | 生む, 産む |  to give birth | umu

しぬ | 死ぬ |  to die | shinu

壊れる | こわれる |  to break | kowareru

Movement

いく | 行く |  to go | iku

くる | 来る |  to come | kuru

かえる | 帰る,  返る |  to return | kaeru

あるく | 歩く |  to walk | aruku

とぶ | 飛ぶ |  to jump, to fly | tobu

およぐ | 泳ぐ |  to swim | oyogu

Actions

うごく | 動く |  to move| ugoku

おどる | 踊る |  to dance | odoru

ねる | 寝る |  to sleep | neru

うたう | 歌う |  to sing | utau

かむ |  to bite | kamu

たべる | 食べる |  to eat | taberu

のむ | 飲む |  to drink | nomu

さわる | 触る |  to touch | sawaru

なげる、投げる |  to throw | nageru

もつ | 持つ |  to hold | motsu

うつ | 打つ |  to hit, to strike | utsu

なぐる | 殴る |  to hit, to strike | naguru

さす | 指す |  to point | sasu

さす | 刺す | to stab | sasu

さす | 差す |  to raise or extend one’s hands | sasu

ける | 蹴る |  to kick | keru

すわる | 座る |  to sit | suwaru

たつ | 立つ |  to stand | tatsu

はしる | 走る |  to run | hashiru

Changes of state

あく | 空く |  to become unoccupied | aku

こむ |  込む |  to be crowded | komu

いる  |  要る | to need | iru

かわく| 乾く |  to become dry | kawaku

みだす | 乱す |  to disturb, to disarrange | midasu

みだれる| 乱れる | to be disturbed, to become confused | midareru

つかえる | 仕える |  to serve, to work for | tsukaeru

そなわる | 備わる | to be given | sonawaru

すぐれる| 優れる | to excel, to surpass | sugureru

ひえる | 冷える | to decrease, to diminish | hieru

さめる| 覚める |  to wake, to become sober, to be disillusioned | sameru

さめる | 冷める | to cool down | sameru

むく| 向く |  to put, to place | muku

たおれる|  倒れる |  to fall, to collapse | taoreru

かたまる|  固まる |  to harden, to solidify, to become firm | katamaru

うまる |  埋まる |  to be filled, to be surrounded, to overflow | umaru

うもれる |  埋もれる |  to be buried, to be covered | umoreru

ます |  増す |  to increase, to grow | masu

ふえる | 増える |  to increase, to multiply | fueru

はずれる |  外れる |  to deviate | hazureru

ふとる| 太る |  to grow fat | futoru

はじまる |  始まる |  to begin | hajimaru

おわる |  終わる |  to finish, to close | owaru

きめる | 決める | to decide | kimeru

Senses

みる | 見る |  to see | miru

きく | 聞く,  聴く | to hear, to listen | kiku

さわる | 触る |  to touch, to feel | sawaru

かぐ | 嗅ぐ | to smell | kagu

Speech

いう | 言う |  to say | iu

はなす | 話す |  to speak | hanasu

かく | 書く | to write | kaku

よむ | 読む |  to read | yomu

Work

つかう | 使う |  to use | tsukau

つくる | 作る | 造る | 創る |  to make | tsukuru

なおす | 直す, 治す |  to fix, repair | naosu

すてる | 捨てる | to discard, throw away | suteru

とる | 取る,  撮る,  採る |  to take | toru

おく | 置く | to put | oku

Emotions

かなしむ | 悲しむ,  哀しむ |  to be sad | kanashimu

なく | 泣く | to cry | naku

わらう | 笑う | to laugh | warau

おこる | 怒る | to be angry | okoru

ほめる | 褒める |  to encourage | homeru

よろこぶ | 喜ぶ | to celebrate, to be jubilant, to have joy, to have delight | yorokobu

よろこび |  joy, delight, rapture | yorokobi

なぐさめる | 慰める | to console, to consolate, to provide empathy | nagusameru

あきる | 飽きる | to be disinterested, to be bored, to be tired of, to be weary | akiru

おどろく | 驚く | to be astonished, to be surprised, to be scared | odoroku

Activities

あう | 会う | to meet, to interview | au

あける | 開ける |  to open, to unwrap| akeru

あそぶ | 遊ぶ | to play | asobu

あつまる | 集まる |  to gather| atsumaru

うる | 売る |  to sell | uru

える | 得る | to obtain [some benefit or knowledge] | eru

おる | 折る |  to break, to fold | oru

かう | 買う |  to buy | kau

きる | 切る |  to cut | kiru

きる | 着る |  to wear [on the upper body] | kiru

はく| 履く | to wear [on the lower body] | haku

かえる | 変える | to change| kaeru

かえる | 代える | to exchange, to substitute, to replace | kaeru

しめる | 閉める | to close | shimeru

しめる | 締める | to tie, to fasten | shimeru

しめる | 占める | to comprise, to account for | shimeru

しる | 知る | to know | shiru

つかれる | 疲れる |  to get tired | tsukareru

でかける | 出掛ける | to go out, to depart | dekakeru

はたらく | 働く | to work [e.g., at a job] | hataraku

はなす | 放す,  離す | to let go of | hanasu

やすむ | 休む |  to rest, to take a break, to go to bed | yasumu

わかれる | 分かれる| to split into, to be divided | wakareru

わかれる | 別れる | to part, to separate, to break up | wakareru

Adverbs

もう | already |

まだ | still, yet | mada

ずっと | always | zutto

とても | very | totemo

こう | like this |

そう | like that |

ああ |  Oh!, Ah! | ā

どう | how |

Pre-noun adjectival

この | this | kono

その | that | sono

あの | that | ano

どの | which | dono

Interjections

はい |  yes | hai

いいえ | no | iie

Conjunctions

けど | but | kedo

しかし | but, however | shikashi

そして | and then, Then… | soshite

それに | besides | soreni

なぜなら | that is because, being because | nazenara

Particles

Case

が | subject marker, but | ga

から |  from | kara

で |  at, by | de

と |  and, with | to

に |  indirect object marker | ni

の |  possession marker, of | no

へ | to | e | Note: へ is normally read he, but when used as this particle its reading changes to e]

まで |  to | made

より |  than | yori

を | direct object marker | o

Conjunctive

および | 及び | and | oyobi

か |  whether | ka

かも |  might be, possible that | kamo

そして | and then | soshite

それとも | or | soretomo

だの | things like <list of things>, including, such things as | dano

つつ | ongoing occurrence | tsutsu |

て | te form of verb or adjective

と | when, if, that | to

ながら | while, though, both | nagara

ならびに |  as well as | narabini

なり | whether or not | nari

に | to <somewhere>, by <someone> | ni

の | possession | no

ので | so | node

また | 又 | also, again | mata

または | 又は | or alternatively | matawa

も | also, too | mo

や | and | ya

Final

ね | emphasis and question marker, equivalent to “right?” | ne

か | question marker | ka

な |  the copula particle used after quasi-adjectives | na

かしら | I wonder | kashira

さ | -ness | sa

っけ | particle indicating that the speaker is trying to recall some information [“What class is next -kke?”] | -kke

Adverbial

こそ | emphasis | koso

さえ | even | sae

しか |  only | shika

すら | even | sura

くらい |  approximately, about | kurai

だけ | only, as much as | dake

だって |  however | datte

ったら | casual topic marker | ttara

って | said that | tte

でも |  also, or | demo

どころ | particle used to indicate that what precedes it is an extreme example and strongly negates it | dokoro

など | for example | nado

なら | if [for verbs]; subject marker [for nouns] | nara

なんか | casual undervalue, dislike, lack | nanka

なんて | casual undervalue, dislike, lack | nante

は | topic marker | wa | [although ha is the hiragana used, wa is the pronunciation]

ばかり |  just, full of, only | bakari

まで | until | made

も | too, also | mo

 ***

Click images to enlarge them

24t3-japanese-days-of-the-weekt3-japanese-days-of-the-month

Kanji

Kanji is one of the hardest kana to memorize when learning Japanese. There are 1,945 officially endorsed kanji (used every day for signs and newspapers). It seems like a lot, doesn’t it? There are 6,000 in the hardest level of the official kanji proficiency test, which scholars would need to know to graduate, and 50,000+ created and used in history. One of the nice parts, however, is that it’s common to have pronunciation guides for the kanji in question. For example, 友 means ‘friend’. It is pronounced ともだち (or とも) which is tomodachi.  For in, say, a newspaper, it would be displayed as something like; 友 [とも].

To learn more kanji, I suggest;

Essential Kanji: 2, 000 Basic Japanese Characters Systematically Arranged for Learning and Reference“.
Purchase Here

And; “Japanese Kanji Flashcards: 300 Beginner-Level Kanji Cards (Mixed media product)”
Purchase Here

Find rhymes & pictures to help remember your kana!
Here are some to help you start:

kana memory game | via Shiki Book Japan

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